Forests, particularly indigenous forests, support a substantial proportion of the planet’s biological diversity. Biological diversity (biodiversity) enables ecosystems to respond to external influences, recover after disturbances and maintain essential ecological processes.
Human activities and natural processes can reduce biodiversity by (i) altering and fragmenting habitats, (ii) introducing invasive species, or (iii) reducing the population or ranges of species.
Conserving the diversity of organisms and their habitats supports forest ecosystems and their ability to function, reproduce and remain productive.
Biodiversity can be measured in terms of:
(i) ecosystem diversity
(ii) species diversity
(iii) genetic diversity.